Countries (and regions) often have dedicated science and technology strategies, statements, initiatives or even specific policies. Sometimes science diplomacy is explicitly mentioned, sometimes not. Those are necessary to steer scientific and diplomatic practices towards a more coordinated and integrated pathway.
A few examples of non-EU initiatives are listed below.
Brazil’s National Strategy in Science Technology and Innovation (ENCTI 2016-2022) determines the framework for activities of science, technology and innovation in the country. ENCTI guidelines aim to complement national capacities through international cooperation activities and projects. Beyond diplomacy in science and technology, Brazil also focuses on Innovation Diplomacy.
Panama’ s strategy for science diplomacy’s The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Panama has put forward a strategic plan in May 2019. Several actors from academia, civil society and the state helped develop this strategy that seeks to identify simple and possible actions that are useful to promote and strengthen the links between the scientific community and the diplomatic corps and to export their knowledge worldwide.
Keywords: International cooperation, Strategy, Innovation,