1. How to Get Started?
2. What Is Science Diplomacy?
3. Who Are the Science Diplomacy Stakeholders?
4. How Does the EU Practice Science Diplomacy?
5. What Are the National, Regional and Thematic Approaches of Science Diplomacy?
6. What Set of Skills Do I Need to Be a Good Science Diplomat?
7. Hands On! Case Studies
8. How Can You Dive Deeper into Science Diplomacy?
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8.5 Science Diplomacy at its best

Quevedo (2013) |The Importance of International Research Institutions for Science Diplomacy (reading)

The article exemplifies how international research institutions can play an important role in bridging the world’s political and developmental divides by focusing on large scale scientific challenges that require collaboration between countries. More precisely, the article explains how the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) probably represent examples of how international scientific institutions can play a crucial role in uniting countries and cultures with the goal of benefiting not just a single country or region, but the world as a whole.

Fritz (2016) | Observations, Diplomacy, and the Future of Ocean Governance (reading)

The challenges of linking scientific collaboration with interstate diplomacy are certainly enormous. The G7 states have initiated a process that offers a valuable test case on the conceptual and practical merits of science diplomacy in the management of international spaces beyond national jurisdiction. The article explores the G7 proposal of 2015 for a global ocean observing initiative and the challenges and opportunities that may arise vis-à-vis interstate competition and cooperation. Given that states use data and information from the oceans to compete as well as cooperate, the article argues that science diplomacy is a useful conceptual tool to reflect on and shape relations between scientific and policy communities. It concludes that the proposed global ocean observing initiative is a valuable test case for the role of science in shaping interstate relations in their governing of ocean spaces beyond national jurisdiction.

Bundokji (2017) | Water-Energy Nexus: An Innovative Approach to Peacebuilding (reading)

The Arab-Israeli conflict is one of the most complex in the world. It has all the divisive elements of ethnicity, religion, borders, and natural resources. EcoPeace Middle East is an organization that seeks to create lasting peace through environmental cooperation and protection of shared natural resources. The Jordanian project coordinator, Mohammad Bundokji, explains the innovative approach to peacebuilding that consists of generating positive mutual dependencies for water and energy. The article elaborates on the Water-Energy Nexus project, which aims at creating a state of interdependence between the three countries and thereby illustrates one of the most ambitious approaches to science diplomacy.

Hammond (2016) | Understanding Volcanos in Isolated Locations: Engaging Diplomacy for Science (reading)

The article provides noteworthy example of science diplomacy – including North Korea. In a typical international scientific collaboration, the hardest steps are often developing a strong research idea, building a team, formulating a proposal, and obtaining funding. However, because of the significant political strain between North Korea and the international community, the project faced a number of unique challenges that required the development and implementation of diplomatic skills to facilitate these important scientific objectives. Based on the challenges encountered, the author provides five useful guidelines that allow for trust to be established among all partners, showing that scientific collaboration can overcome even the most obstructive political complications.

Berkman (2017) | The Arctic Science Agreement propels science diplomacy (reading)

Global geopolitics is fuelling the renewal of East-West tensions. With deteriorating US-Russia relations in the wake of conflicts in Ukraine and Syria, issues involving cyber-security, and broader concerns about expanding militarization arise. Against this backdrop, the Agreement on Enhancing International Arctic Scientific Cooperation, is a milestone. This Arctic Science Agreement is a strong signal reaffirming the global relevance of science as a tool of diplomacy. It provides a framework for enhancing the efforts of scientists working on cutting-edge issues, but translating the general language of the agreement into enhanced action required further attention, collaboration, and effort among diplomats and scientists to ensure its successful implementation.

Bunn (2019) | How diplomacy in space can inspire cooperation on earth (video)

    • Relevance: Module 5 and 7

In this video, Dr Alice Bunn, International Director at the UK Space Agency, explains the surprising instances of diplomacy in space that counteract the isolationist approach of many governments on earth. In space, countries cannot work in isolation but need to cooperate, work, and live side by side. Describing how international space agencies pooled resources to help trapped civilians during the 2011Tohoku earthquake and tsunami in Japan, it is illustrated how space dissolves geopolitical boundaries to the benefit of all involved.

European Research Council (2020) | Science Diplomacy and Climate Change (Video)

    • Relevance: Module 5 and 7

How are climate change and conflict in the Arctic connected? How can scientists contribute to cooperation across borders? In this video, two ERC grantees and IPCC contributors explain what exactly is happening in the Arctic and how science diplomacy can contribute to cooperation across borders either when traditional diplomacy fails or as a supporting measure. They emphasise the importance of science to provide information and evidence but indicate that what they can achieve on their own is limited – in order to achieve real policy change, they need to cooperate.

Annegarn and Swap (2012) | SAFARI2000 – A Southern African example of science diplomacy (reading)

The power of science diplomacy to improve international relations has drawn growing interest in diplomatic and scientific circles. Naledi Pandor, South Africa’s former minister of science and technology, extends the activist role of science to encompass a transformative developmental agenda, by arguing that science policy in South Africa’s post-apartheid era should aim “to develop, for the first time, relations with African partners, but also to leverage international partnerships and investments in support of national programs and capacity building.”

DiploFoundation (2019) | Arctic diplomacy: Approaches and lessons (video)

    • Relevance: Module 5

The Arctic is a place and object of diplomacy. It is particularly interesting to use it as a lens through which to explore various diplomatic approaches and practices. The experts in this debate all focus on the Arctic but cover different topics and therefore give us different angles on the topic.