In the following topics, we will provide an overview of different types of stakeholders with an interest or a say in science diplomacy. We will identify what these interests are and, finally, give real life examples. Throughout all these topics, you will get to watch short video interviews from different experts, who will explain to you their personal perspectives.
Our proposal to sort the different stakeholders working on science diplomacy is a simple, yet effective one and it is based on the stakeholder type. Once we have gone through this classification, we will devote some time to reflect on how these stakeholders operate and collaborate in different networks.
Thus, our taxonomy proposal has two levels:
|Values and Governance Systems: Transversal aspects that help us make sense of the complex, multi-level, multi-actor, multi-faceted concept of science diplomacy
|In one of our S4D4C reports we have identified ten transversal aspects of science diplomacy that we have called ‘matters’ because they both comprise the substance of science diplomacy, and they matter, in the sense that they are consequential for both practically and conceptually understanding science diplomacy. We highlight here two of them:
Values – Science diplomacy efforts are influenced by two distinct sets of values, political-social values and scientific values. The former often provide the grand objectives for science diplomacy initiatives, but the later (which include universalism, communality, disinterestedness, organized skepticism, responsibleness, precautionary, openness, and truth) can form the basis of cooperation with countries that may not share political values. Different types of science diplomacy, as identified by the Royal Society/AAAS framework, engage with different sets of values in distinct ways.
Governance systems – Governance systems are unique in their networked configuration of actors, stakeholders, processes, instruments, and institutions. We can better understand them by looking at three types of nodality (being in the middle of the network): nodality of science – how central science is vis-à-vis diplomacy, nodality of level – which levels (global, subglobal, national, subnational) are most central, and finally how the nodes cluster to create core and peripheral elements of the governance system. Nodality in the science diplomacy system provides opportunities to exert leadership and shape agendas.
– Young, Mitchell, Charlotte Rungius, Ewert J Aukes, Lorenzo Melchor, Eliska Černovská, Eliska Tomolová, Laure-Anne Plumhans, Pauline Ravinet, Tim Flink, and Ana Elorza Moreno (2020): The ‘Matters’ of Science Diplomacy: Transversal Analysis of the S4D4C Case Studies. Vienna: S4D4C (Link)
Learn about the importance of values in science diplomacy from our S4D4C expert.
Assistant Professor, Department of European Studies, Charles University, Prague
Which differences in values have you identified depending on the type of science diplomacy stakeholders?
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