1. How to Get Started?
2. What Is Science Diplomacy?
3. Who Are the Science Diplomacy Stakeholders?
4. How Does the EU Practice Science Diplomacy?
5. What Are the National, Regional and Thematic Approaches of Science Diplomacy?
6. What Set of Skills Do I Need to Be a Good Science Diplomat?
7. Hands On! Case Studies
8. How Can You Dive Deeper into Science Diplomacy?
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2.2.2 The System of Diplomacy and International Relations

Diplomacy is the use of dialogue, negotiation and representation in international relations. Embassies and consulates that a country deploys abroad are key components of the diplomatic infrastructure (Ruffini 2017).

The Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations (1964) defines the main functions of a diplomatic mission of a sending state in a receiving state as: representing the sending state to protect its interests and those of its nationals; ascertaining conditions and developments in the receiving state, and negotiating with the government of the receiving state and finally, promoting friendly relations and developing economic, cultural and scientific relations with the receiving state.

Nation states therefore make use of diplomacy at the bilateral level (with another nation state), at the regional level (with other nation states that have an interest or are geographically located at a specific region), or at the global level being part of intergovernmental or international organisations (IGO).

The increase of complexity in diplomacy over the centuries has promoted the specialisation of diplomacy to specific fields or niches such as science diplomacy, climate diplomacy, education diplomacy, water diplomacy, cyber diplomacy, techplomacy, and so forth.

International Relations are an area of study in social sciences and humanities that covers matters of politics, economics, and law at the global scale. It focuses on the relationships between political entities or polities of different nature (Nation states, IGOs, non-governmental organisations, multinational corporations…) with the world systems that result from it.

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About International Relations:
–      Baylis, John, and Steve Smith (Eds.) (2004): The Globalization of World Politics: An Introduction to International Relations, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 3rd edition.
–      Burchill, Scott, Andrew Linklater, Richard Devetak, Jack Donnelly, Matthew Paterson, Christian Reus-Smit, and Jacqui True (2005): Theories of International Relations, Basingstoke: Palgrave, 3rd edition.
–      Bjola, Corneliu, and Markus Kornprobst (2013): Understanding International Diplomacy: Theory, Practice and Ethics. London: Routledge, chapters 5-8.
–      Roach, Steven C., Martin Griffiths, and Terry O’Callaghan (2014): International relations: the key concepts, London: Routledge.

About International Law:
–      Dixon, Martin. (2013): Textbook on International Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 7th Edition.
–      Seidl-Hohenveldern, Ignaz von, and Torsten Stein (2000): Völkerrecht, Heymmans, 1st Edition. (In German).

About European Law:
–      Barnard, Catherine, and Steven Peers (2017): European Union Law, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2Nd Edition.
–      Hafner, Gerhard; Andreas J. Kumin, and Friedl Weiss (2013): Recht der Europäischen Union: Eintwicklung, Institutionen, Politiken, Verfahren, Vienna: Manz. (In German).

About Economics, especially for basic concepts, fundamental concepts of macroeconomics, microeconomics, supply, demand and product markets, economic role of governments, international trade, and the world economy:
–      Samuelson, Paul A., and William Nordhaus (2010): Economics, New York: McGraw Hill, 19th edition.

About History:
–      Renouvin, Pierre, and Jean-Baptiste Duroselle (1997): Introduction à l’histoire des relations internationales, Pocket. (In French)
–      Craig, Gordon A. (1995): Geschichte Europas 1815-1980, Beck. (In German)
Kissinger, Henry A. (1995): Diplomacy, New York: Simon & Schuster.
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