1. How to Get Started?
2. What Is Science Diplomacy?
3. Who Are the Science Diplomacy Stakeholders?
4. How Does the EU Practice Science Diplomacy?
5. What Are the National, Regional and Thematic Approaches of Science Diplomacy?
6. What Set of Skills Do I Need to Be a Good Science Diplomat?
7. Hands On! Case Studies
8. How Can You Dive Deeper into Science Diplomacy?
Satisfaction Survey

7.4.2 Research Methodology

It is important to highlight that none of the actors involve use the term “Open Science Diplomacy”. However, this notion provides a guide:

This case was a qualitative research study that used the following approaches:

  • Desk-based document analysis: observing the Open Science policy arena as a potential site for science diplomacy, finding out also how international science policy and international scientific collaboration policy documents referred to open science.
  • Participatory observation: between June 2018 and June 2019 in several setting in which the author is involved as an expert/rapporteur and active member: Horizon 2020 Policy Support Facility Mutual Learning Exercise on Open Science: Altmetrics and Rewards (2017-2018), and the Open Science Network Austria. Additionally, several conferences, workshops, and meetings dedicated to Open Science were attended and observed.
  • Semi-structured interviews: a total of 23 semi-structured interviews were conducted with Open Science stakeholders from October 2018 to June 2019. Interviewees came from a variety of backgrounds: scientists, administrators, funders, policy makers, etc. and a range of organisations such as public administration, scientific management organisations, libraries, NGOs, and grassroots movements. Some of the participants added an extra-European perspective coming from Argentina, India, or Moldova. However, finding interview partners was not an easy task, especially persons from the fields of diplomacy of foreign relations were either too busy or in their own opinion “not knowledgeable enough” about Open Science to be available for an interview – from 23 interviews only 3 persons have a traditional diplomatic background.
List of interviewees by type of actor and their governance-level

The following research questions were considered:

  1. How can Open Science be exploited for decision-making support, knowledge resources and science diplomacy governance frameworks?
  2. How is the European Open Science strategy perceived and how can it be harnessed for foreign policy?
  3. How can science diplomacy and Open Science mutually benefit from each other, while the modus operandi of the global science system is facing fundamental changes?

What the experts think

The lead author of this research case study, Katja Mayer, has been interviewed to provide you with some key highlights.

Katja Mayer

Katja Mayer

Member of Open Knowledge and the Open Access Network Austria OANA, Centre for Social Innovation (ZSI)

How did you design the research for the case “Open Science”? Whom did you interview?


Read more!
You may get all the information about this S4D4C case study in the following references:
– Mayer, K. (2020): Open Science Diplomacy. In: Young, M., T. Flink, E. Dall (eds.) (2020): Science Diplomacy in the Making: Case-based insights from the S4D4C project (Link)
– Poster Report “Open Science Diplomacy” (Link)

Creative Commons License
The material provided under this course is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.