1. How to Get Started?
2. What Is Science Diplomacy?
3. Who Are the Science Diplomacy Stakeholders?
4. How Does the EU Practice Science Diplomacy?
5. What Are the National, Regional and Thematic Approaches of Science Diplomacy?
6. What Set of Skills Do I Need to Be a Good Science Diplomat?
7. Hands On! Case Studies
8. How Can You Dive Deeper into Science Diplomacy?
Satisfaction Survey

2.3.6 Science Diplomacy for Addressing Global Challenges: Stoppers, Warnings and Drivers

The use of science diplomacy for addressing global challenges and societal needs has been object of extensive academic study and policy support as a way to reinforce multilateralism. Successful stories, such as the Montreal Protocol to tackle emissions of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other ozone-depleting agents (Whitesides 2020), or the Paris Agreement to tackle climate change (Ollivier-Mrejen, Michel, and Pham 2018), have further strengthened a science diplomacy scope focused on addressing global challenges.

Moreover, the S4D4C team have focused their efforts to try to understand what processes may block, challenge, or drive any effort to undertake this type of science diplomacy strategy. As a result, S4D4C has identified a set of stoppers, warnings, and drivers that are specific to the systems of science, diplomacy, and science diplomacy (Melchor, Elorza, and Lacunza, 2020; 2021).

You will find below a summary figure containing these elements using the analogy of traffic lights. For instance, scientific and research misconduct with the lack of research integrity can affect people trust in science, reduce the impact of research investment and also harm people in the environment (a stopper in the system of Science), the lack of a more personalised training for scientists or for diplomats can reduce opportunities for better cooperation (a warning in the systems of Science and Diplomacy), current socio-political fractures in the European Union or the uptake of nationalisms, protectionism and populisms may deter countries to collaborate via science diplomacy (Stoppers in the system of Diplomacy), or the use of good examples of science advice mechanism and of developmental cooperation frameworks may be considered drivers in the systems of Science, and Diplomacy, respectively.

Figure 6. Stoppers, warnings, and drivers for addressing global challenges: stoppers in red lights, warnings in amber lights, and drivers in green lights. Columns represent the nature of the system of said item: the first column addresses items related to science, technology and innovation; the second column comprises items related to diplomacy; and the third column involves items related to science diplomacy. Source: image extracted from (Melchor, Elorza, and Lacunza 2021)

You may browse the tabs below to have a look at a brief explanation of each identified element for each system or alternatively download our S4D4C policy executive booklet or our S4D4C full policy report.

See policy report (Melchor, Elorza, and Lacunza 2021)
See policy report (Melchor, Elorza, and Lacunza 2021)
See policy report (Melchor, Elorza, and Lacunza 2021)

Read more!

-      Melchor, Lorenzo, Ana Elorza, and Izaskun Lacunza (2020): Calling for a Systemic Change: Towards a European Union Science Diplomacy for Addressing Global Challenges. V1.0. S4D4C Policy Report, Madrid: S4D4C (Link)
-      Melchor, Lorenzo, Ana Elorza, and Izaskun Lacunza (2021): Calling for a Systemic Change: Towards a European Union Science Diplomacy for Addressing Global Challenges. V2.0. S4D4C Policy Report, Madrid: S4D4C (Link)
-      Ollivier-Mrejen, Raphaël, Pierre Michel, and Minh-Hà Pham (2018): “Chronicles of a Science Diplomacy Initiative on Climate Change.”  Science & Diplomacy, Vol. 7, No. 2 (June 2018) (Link)
- Whitesides, Greg (2020): “Learning from Success: Lessons in Science and Diplomacy from the Montreal Protocol.Science & Diplomacy, Vol. 9. No. 2 (June 2020) (Link)
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