1. How to Get Started?
2. What Is Science Diplomacy?
3. Who Are the Science Diplomacy Stakeholders?
4. How Does the EU Practice Science Diplomacy?
5. What Are the National, Regional and Thematic Approaches of Science Diplomacy?
6. What Set of Skills Do I Need to Be a Good Science Diplomat?
7. Hands On! Case Studies
8. How Can You Dive Deeper into Science Diplomacy?
Satisfaction Survey

7.4.3 Main Findings

The main conclusions from this case study are as follows:

  • The European Open Science priorities are under benevolent international observation, commitments are increasing, however implementation is still cautious. Open Science Diplomacy can be defined today mostly as International political cooperation for the advancement of the transition towards Open Science, even though “science diplomacy” is not a term used very often in the realms of global Open Science. The impact of changes in the international science system on foreign relations is in some cases already tangible – e.g. in the creation of international partnerships for the promotion of Open Access publishing or the exchange of Open Research Data.
  • Open Science is rarely on the diplomatic agenda, and science diplomacy or diplomatic practice is only marginally used for international orchestration and coordination from science policy administrators, even though advocates would welcome the involvement of foreign policy actors. Their potential link was reflected in most case interviews as ‘non-existent’, ‘un-anticipated’, but ‘interesting’ and ‘improvable’. This potential – for example to tackle societal challenges such as infectious diseases efficiently  across  borders  –  has  not  been  harnessed  yet,  even  though  research  policy makers and Open Science advocates are aware of it and have started to promote it.
  • Pressing issues, like the harmonisation of standards and legal frameworks for the exchange of data (‘data diplomacy’), as well as new opportunities for innovation have not yet been discussed in the light of Open Science developments.
  • Rare involvement of diplomatic institutions, such as embassies, is mostly triggered by local advocates, such as library consortia, and is often not sustainable.
  • Governance of international Open Science activities in the public sector varies greatly and is not standardised.
  • International stakeholder landscapes have changed profoundly in the last 30 years, towards a broad variety of advocacy actors and policy implementing organisations (such as funders and research organisations) with the increased involvement of publishing and content service industries. Having said this, many cross-border activities rely on informal and personal relationships

What the experts think

The lead author of this research case study, Katja Mayer, has been interviewed to provide you with some key highlights.

Katja Mayer

Katja Mayer

Member of Open Knowledge and the Open Access Network Austria OANA, Centre for Social Innovation (ZSI)

What were your main findings regarding the science diplomacy dimension of Open Science?

What are the main difficulties for a more integrated science diplomacy approach to Open Science?


Read more!
You may get all the information about this S4D4C case study in the following references:
– Mayer, K. (2020): Open Science Diplomacy. In: Young, M., T. Flink, E. Dall (eds.) (2020): Science Diplomacy in the Making: Case-based insights from the S4D4C project (Link)
– Poster Report “Open Science Diplomacy” (Link)

Creative Commons License
The material provided under this course is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.