As stressed throughout the course in general and this module in particular, European science diplomacy needs to be understood in a multi-level governance framework in which Member States hold and share responsibilities and where, some of them, have taken the lead in developing science diplomacy strategies.
In an effort of simplification, below are some of the governmental stakeholders that put science diplomacy in action but more information can be found in Lesson 2.4 What Kind of Science Diplomats Are There?; Topics 3.2.1 Governmental Stakeholders and 3.3.2 National Networks; and Module 5. What Are the National, Regional, and Thematic Approaches of Science Diplomacy?.
A number of MS have science and technology advisory boards or science advice structures to inform governments (in the same fashion the European Commission is supported by the Scientific Advice Mechanism).
These boards can take many forms and those boards advising foreign affairs policies are a classic example of science diplomacy.
A number of MS have science and technology counsellors, attachés or advisers not only in third countries but also within their own countries, as scientific cooperation within the EU is extremely fruitful.
A detailed description of the different formulas used in some of these countries is given in Topic 2.4.3 Science Counsellors, Attachés, Advisers and Envoys in Embassies, as well as in Module 5. What are the National, Regional, and Thematic Approaches Science Diplomacy?
Some of the most relevant European universities and research performing organizations have either liaison offices in other MS and third countries if not joint centres where scientific cooperation is key.
Professor of International Economics, Faculty of International Affairs, University of Le Havre (France). Former Counsellor for Science and Technology at the Embassy of France in Russia (2007-2010) and Italy (2010-2013). Research fellow in the H2020-funded project InsSciDe
How do member states of the European Union relate to science diplomacy?
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