1. How to Get Started?
2. What Is Science Diplomacy?
3. Who Are the Science Diplomacy Stakeholders?
4. How Does the EU Practice Science Diplomacy?
5. What Are the National, Regional and Thematic Approaches of Science Diplomacy?
6. What Set of Skills Do I Need to Be a Good Science Diplomat?
7. Hands On! Case Studies
8. How Can You Dive Deeper into Science Diplomacy?
Satisfaction Survey

7.6.4 Main Recommendations

While in 2020, in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, many readers might be tempted to draw out science diplomacy recommendations from the case of the plague in Oporto, the historian for her part does not project her observations of the past into the present day. Céline Paillette does reflect however that ‘this case study shows the importance of international exchanges for the management of an epidemic outbreak: exchange of information, scientific collaborations, harmonization of health standards. These exchanges and cooperation are needed during a crisis, but also long before, upstream from the outbreak. Both crisis negotiations, and negotiations over the longer term are essential for the management of pandemics.’

Céline Paillette also provides a rich sample bibliography (with open access links) for those who wish to go further in understanding the Oporto case and global health diplomacy. Elements of her comprehensive historical account of international cooperation in health diplomacy, in and beyond Europe, will be published as an InsSciDE case for study and teaching in 2021.

Read more!
General Background
– Myron Echenberg, Plague Ports: The Global Urban Impact of Bubonic Plague, 1894-1901, NYU Press, 2010 (Link)

Historiography – History of international relations and history of diplomacy
– Robert Frank, Pour l’histoire des relations internationales. Presses Universitaires de France, 2012, and in particular Chapter 21 by Jean-Claude Allain, Laurence Badel, « L’appareil diplomatique », pp. 475-510. DOI : 10.3917/puf.frank.2012.01.0475. (Link)

A view on Disease Diplomacy in the 21st century
– Sara E. Davies, Adam Kamradt-Scott, and Simon Rushton, Disease diplomacy : international norms and global health security, in particular the Introduction. (Link)
Epidemic diseases and international relations
– Mark Harrison, Disease, diplomacy and international commerce: the origins of international sanitary regulation in the nineteenth century. Journal of Global History, Volume 49, Issue 2  June 2006 , pp. 453-476. DOI: (Link)
– Valeska Huber, The Unification of the Globe by Disease? The International Sanitary Conferences On Cholera, 1851–1894. The Historical Journal, Volume 49Numéro 2, June 2006 , pp. 453-476.  DOI: (Link)
Health diplomacy and international organizations – including European issues
– Céline Paillette, « Diplomatie et globalisation des enjeux sanitaires. Camille Barrère, un itinéraire diplomatique du Caire à l’Office international d’hygiène publique (1883-1926) », Hypothèses, 2014/1 (17), p. 129-138. DOI : 10.3917/hyp.131.0129. (Link)
– Céline Paillette, « L’Europe et les organisations sanitaires internationales. Enjeux régionaux et mondialisation, des années 1900 aux années 1920 », Les cahiers Irice, 2012/1 (n° 9), p. 47-60. DOI : 10.3917/lci.009.0047. (Link)
– Céline Paillette, « Épidémies, santé et ordre mondial. Le rôle des organisations sanitaires internationales, 1903-1923 », Monde(s), 2012/2 (N° 2), p. 235-256. DOI : 10.3917/mond.122.0235. (Link)
– Céline Paillette, « De l’Organisation d’hygiène de la SDN à l’OMS. Mondialisation et régionalisme européen dans le domaine de la santé, 1919-1954 », Bulletin de l’Institut Pierre Renouvin, 2010/2 (N° 32), p. 193-198. DOI : 10.3917/bipr.032.0193. (Link)

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